Age of a tephra can be determined by simple stratigraphy, if adequate number of time-markers are provided. Eleven master tephras are chosen as the time-markers for the last one million years. They are Kikai-Akahoya (7.330 ka), Aira-Tanzawa (28.00 ka), Daisen-Kurayoshi (64.00 ka), Aso-4 (87.00 ka), Ata-Torihama (250.0 ka), Kakuto (340.0 ka), Suiendani-TE5 (420.0 ka), Kobayashi-Sakura (540.0 ka), Kaisho-Toriitoge (650.0 ka), Shishimuta-Azuki (870.0 ka), and Shishimuta-Pink (1000 ka). The present earth surface and Bruhnes/Matuyama boundary (780.0 ka) play a same role as master tephras.
Ages of some master tephras are assigned rather arbitrarily, however, it is productive to affix them once to a specific value. A tephra sandwiched between two master tephras is afforded its age by interpolating the thicknesses of loess between them. This technique, loess-chronometry, has the advantage of ability to measure an interval of tens to thousands years in the geologic past, over radiometric datings. More than 900 tephras are presently recorded and linked each other in a computer database including name, source volcano, age, magnitude, stratigraphy, and remarks.